Udipt Nidhi : The Constitution of India is unique in many ways. It has several special features that distinguish it from other Constitutions of the world. We have tried to gather some amazing facts about our Constitution.On October 12, 2015, PM Modi announced that November will be celebrated as Constitution Day all across the nation. There were reasons to celebrate this auspicious day. Our Constitution is a guiding and law framing book, that all should be aware of. The architect of this nation is our Constitution and everyone should know about our guiding book.
Here are some of the special features of Indian Constitution :
So it is a concluded fact that we are fortunate to have such constitution. We should be grateful to Rajendra Prasad, Dr. B R Ambedkar are other Constitution club forefathers for their contribution in drafting world’s lengthiest Constitution.
- Size Of Constitution : In sheer physical term it is the lengthiest Constitution given to any nation. It is a very comprehensive document and includes many matters which could legitimately be the subject matter of ordinary legislation administrative action. Unlike the United States where in addition to the federal constitution, each state has its own separate constitution. The constitution of India, not only include Union but also the states.
- Written Or Unwritten : Constitution may be written like that of US and may be unwritten and based on the convention like that of British. Our Constitution is a written document.
- Rigid Or Flexible : Constitution may be called as rigid or flexible on the ground of amending procedure being difficult or easy. Federal Constitution is usually classified as rigid. Our constitution can be said to be both rigid and flexible. If we talk about Article- 2,3,4 and 169, they can be amended by ordinary legislation by the simple majority in the House of parliament. While other provision can be amended by ordinary legislation by 2/3rd majority of the Houses. In the last 60 years, more than 94 amendments have been done.
- Federal Or Unitary : Constitution are also divided into federal and unitary. US Constitution is federal and Constitution of UK is unitary in nature. In Unitary Constitution, all powers are vested in the Central Government to which the authorities in the unit are subordinates and functions as an agent of Central Government. But in Federal Constitution, the powers are distributed among federal governments and all share power in an equal sphere. India’s Constitution is ‘Quasi-Federal’ in nature. Federal with strong unitary or pro-center bias, federal in structure but unitary in an emergency. Indian Constitution is actually a mixture of both Federal and Unitary.
- Parliamentary Or Presidential : India is a republic and head is President in whom all the executive power vests. He is supreme commander of the armed forces. There has been the debate in our country on the desirability or otherwise of moving over the presidential model. In a highly pluralistic society with India’s size and diversity, it is believed that parliamentary form is not suited for accommodating a variety of interest and building United India.
- Charter Of Fundamental Right : One of the most fundamental demands of our leaders of national struggle was that people had some basic human rights of freedom, equality etc. By and large, the fundamental right incorporated in Part-3 of Constitution is the inviolable rights of the individual against the state. Any law or executive action depriving an individual of his freedom can be challenged in High or Supreme Court.
- Directive Principles : The Directive Principles of the State Policy inspired by Irish precedent are the unique feature of our constitution. Most of the socio-economic rights of people have included under this head. Even though said to be not enforceable in Court of Law, these principles guide the governance.